Research Evidence for Live Your Life Well
Connect With Others
Baskin, T. W. & Enright, R. D. (2004). Intervention studies on forgiveness: A meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling & Development, 82(1), 79-90.
Berkman, L. F. & Syme, S. L. (1979). Social networks, host resistance, and mortality: A nine-year follow-up study of Alameda County residents. American Journal of Epidemiology. 109(2), 186-204.
Diener, E. & Seligman, M. E. Very happy people. Psychological Science 13(1): 81-84.
Freedman, S. R. & Enright, R. D. (1996). Forgiveness as an intervention goal with incest survivors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(5), 983-992.
Hawkley, L. C., Masi, C. M., Berry, J. D., Cacioppo, J. T. (2006). Loneliness is a unique predictor of age-related differences in systolic blood pressure. Psychology and Aging, 21(1), 152-164.
Israel, B. A., Farquhar, S. A., Schulz, A. J., James, S. A., & Parker, E. A. (2002). The relationship between social support, stress, and health among women on Detroit’s East Side. Health Education & Behavior, 29(3), 342-360.
Mental Health America. (2006). Mental Health America attitudinal survey: Findings on stress in America. Alexandria, VA.
Emmons, R.A. & McCullough, M.E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 377-389.
King, L. A. (2001). The health benefits of writing about life goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 798-807.
Langston, C. A. (1994) Capitalizing on and coping with daily-life events: Expressive responses to positive events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1112-1125.
Lyubomirsky, S., Kasri, F., & Zehm, K. (2003). Dysphoric rumination impairs concentration on academic tasks. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 309–330.
Maruta, T., Colligan, R. C., Malinchoc, M., & Offord K. P. (2000). Optimists versus pessimists: Survival rate among medical patients over a 30-year period. Mayo Clinic Proceedings,. 75, 140-143.
Schwartz, J.M., Stoessel, P.W., Baxter, L.R., Martin, K.M., & Phelps, M.E. (1996). Systematic changes in cerebral glucose metabolic rate after successful behavior modification treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 109-113.
Seligman, M. E., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60, 410–21.
Get Physically Active
Babyak, M., Blumenthal, J. A., Herman, S., Khatri, P., Doraiswamny, M., Moore, K., Craighead, W.E., Baldewicz, T. T., & Krishnan, K. R. (2000). Exercise treatment for major depression: Maintenance of therapeutic benefit at 10 months. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62(5), 633-638.
Ettinger, W. H., Burns, R., Messier, S. P., Applegate, W., Rejeski, W. J., Morgan, T., Shumaker, S., Berry, M. J., O’Toole, M., Monu, J., & Craven, T. (1997). A randomized trial comparing aerobic exercise and resistance exercise with a health education program in older adults with knee osteoarthritis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277, 25–31.
Galper, D.L., Trivedi, M.H., Barlow, C.E., Dunn, A.L, & Kampert, J.B. (2006). Inverse association between physical inactivity and mental health in men and women. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 38(1), 173-178.
Hamer, M., Stamatakis, E., & Steptoe, A. (April 10, 2008). Does response relationship between physical activity and mental health: The Scottish Health Survey. British Journal of Sports Medicine.
Hillman, C. H., Erickson, K. I., & Kramer, A. F. (January 2008). Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience, 9(1), 58-65.
King, A. C., Baumann, K., O'Sullivan, P., Wilcox, S., & Castro, C. (2002). Effects of moderate-intensity exercise on physiological, behavioral, and emotional responses to family caregiving: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 57, M26-M36.
Mayo Clinic Staff. (October 23, 2007). Depression and anxiety: Exercise eases symptoms. Retrieved from http://mayoclinic.com/health/depression-and-exercise/MH00043.
Mayo Clinic Staff. (July 26, 2007). Exercise: 7 benefits of regular physical activity. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/exercise/HQ01676.
Nieman, D. C. (June 2001). Does exercise alter immune function and respiratory infections? President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Research Digest, Series 3, No. 13. Retrieved from www.fitness.gov/June2001Digest.pdf.
Peluso, M. A., & Guerra de Andrade, L. H. (2005). Physical activity and mental health: The association between exercise and mood. Clinics, 60(1), 61-70.
Rejeski, W.J., Shelton, B., Miller, M., Dunn, A.L., King, A.C., & Sallis, J.F. (2001). Mediators of increased physical activity and change in subjective well-being: Results from the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT). Journal of Health Psychology, 6(2), 159-168.
Saxena, S., Van Ommeren, M., Tang, K.C., & Armstrong, T.P. (2005). Mental health benefits of physical activity. Journal of Mental Health, 14(5), 445-451.
Stephens, T. (1988). Physical activity and mental health in the United States and Canada: evidence from four population surveys. Preventive Medicine, 17(1), 35-47.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. http://www.health.gov/PAGuidelines/guidelines/chapter2.aspx.
Harris, A. H. & Thoresen, C. E. (2005). Volunteering is associated with delayed mortality in older people. Journal of Health Psychology 10(6), 739-752.
Krause, N. (2006). Church-based social support and mortality, Journal of Gerontology, Series B: Social Sciences 61, S140–S146.
Luks, A. (1988, October). Helper's high: Volunteering makes people feel good, physically and emotionally. Psychology Today, 22(10), 34-42.
Moll, J., Krueger, F., Zahn, R., Pardini, M., de Oliveira-Souza, R. & Grafman (2006). Human fronto–mesolimbic networks guide decisions about charitable donation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 15623-15628.
Schwartz, C. E. & Sendor, M. (1999). Helping others helps oneself: Response shift effects in peer support. Social Science and Medicine, 48, 1563-1575.
Sheldon, K. M., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2004). Achieving sustainable new happiness: Prospects, practices, and prescriptions. In A. Linley & S. Joseph (Eds.), Positive psychology in practice (pp. 127-145). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Get Enough Sleep
Ayas, N.T., White, D.P., Manson, J.E., Stampfer, M.J., Speizer, F.E., Malhotra, A., & Hu, F.B. (2003). A prospective study of sleep duration and coronary heart disease in women. Archives of Internal Medicine, 163(2), 205-209.
Centers for Disease Control. (2008) Sleep and sleep disorders: A public health challenge. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/sleep/.
Gangwisch, J.E., Malaspina, D., Boden-Albala, B., & Heymsfield, S.B. (2005). Inadequate sleep as a risk factor for obesity: Analyses of the NHANES I. Sleep, 28(10), 1289-1296.
Harrison, Y. & Horne, J. A. (2000). Sleep loss and temporal memory. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53(1), 271-279.
Irwin, M., McClintick, J., Costlow, C., Fortner, M., White, J., & Gillin, J. C. (1996). Partial night sleep deprivation reduces natural killer and cellular immune responses in humans. Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 10(5), 643-653.
Sephton, S. & Spiegel, D. (2003). Circadian disruption in cancer: a neuroendocrine-immune pathway from stress to disease? Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 17(5), 321-328.
Taylor, D. J., Lichstein, K.L., Durrence, H. H., Reidel, B. W., & Bush, A. J. (2005). Epidemiology of insomnia, depression, and anxiety. Sleep, 28(11), 1457-1464.
Create Joy and Satisfaction
Cogan, R., Cogan, D., Waltz, W., & McCue, M. (1987). Effects of laughter and relaxation on discomfort thresholds. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 10, 139-144.
Crowe, M., Andel, R. Pedersen, N.L., Johansso, B. & Gatz, M. (2003) Does participation in leisure activities lead to reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease? A prospective study of Swedish twins.The Journal of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 5, 249-255.
DeNoon, D.J. (November 13, 2008). Joyful Music Helps the Heart: Music that inspires joy improves blood vessel function.WebMD Health News. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/heart/news/20081113/joyful-music-helps-the-heart.
Duclos, S. E., Laird, J. D., Schneider, E., Sexter, M., Stern, L., & Van Lighten, O. (1989) Emotion-specific effects of facial expressions and postures on emotional experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 57(1), 100-108.
Fredrickson, B. L. &. Levenson, R. W. (1998). Positive emotions speed recovery from the cardiovascular sequelae of negative emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 12(2), 191-220.
Fredrickson, B. L., Tugade, M. M., Waugh, C. E. & Larkin, G. R. (2003) What good are positive emotions in crises? A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 365–376.
Iwasaki, Y. (2006). Counteracting stress through leisure coping: A prospective health study, Psychology, Health & Medicine; 11(2): 209-220.
Isen, A. M., Daubman, K. A., & Nowicki, G.P. (1987). Positive affect facilitates creative problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (6), 1122-31.
Kaplan, R. The role of nature in the context of the workplace. (1993). Landscape and Urban Planning, 26, 193-201.
Kawachi, I., Richman, L. S., Kubzansky, L., Maselko, J., Choo, P., & Bauer, M. (2005). Positive emotion and health: Going beyond the negative. Health Psychology, 24(4), 422-429.
Martin, R. A. (2001). Humor, laughter, and physical health: Methodological issues and research findings. Psychological Bulletin, 127(4), 504-519.
Miller, M. Paper presented at the Scientific Session of the American College of Cardiology on March 7, 2005, in Orlando, Florida. Reported in http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/03/050310100458.htm.
Murray, N., Sujan, H., Hirt, E. R., & Sujan, M. (1990) The influence of mood on categorization: A cognitive flexibility interpretation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(3), 411-425.
Steptoe, A., O'Donnell, K., Badrick, E., Kumari, M. & Marmot, M. (2008). Neuroendocrine and inflammatory factors associated with positive affect in healthy men and women: the Whitehall II study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 167(1), 96-102.
Wrzesniewski, A. & Dutton J. E. (2001). Crafting a job: Revisioning employees as active crafters of their work. Academy of Management Review, 26: 179-201.
Yovetich, N. A, Dale, J. A., & Hudak, M. A. Benefits of humor in reduction of threat-induced anxiety. (1990) Psychological Reports. 66(1), 51-8.
Bauer, J., & MSNBC Interactive. (October 2006). Improve your mood with these foods: Feeling grumpy? Nutritionist Joy Bauer offers some simple strategies on what and when to eat to help you feel better. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15490485/.
Benson, H., Casey, A. (June 2008). Stress Management: approaches for preventing and reducing stress. A Harvard Medical School Special Health Report. Retrieved from https://www.health.harvard.edu/special_health_reports/Stress_Control.htm.
Bethune, S. & Brownawell, A. (October 2008). APA Poll Finds Women Bear Brunt of Nation’s Stress, Financial Downturn, 2008 Stress in America survey. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/releases/women-stress1008.html
Bodnar, L. M., & Wisner, K. L. (2005). Nutrition and Depression: Implications for Improving Mental Health Among Childbearing-Aged Women. Biological Psychiatry, 58(9), 679-685.
Harvard School of Public Health. Alcohol: Balancing Risks and Benefits. The Dark Side of Alcohol. The Nutrition Source. Retrieved from http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/what-should-you-eat/alcohol-full-story/#Dark_side_alcohol.
Lawson, W. (2003). Brain Power: Why Proteins Are Smart. Psychology Today. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/index.php?term=pto-2517.html&fromMod=emailed.
Mayo Clinic Staff. (March 24, 2009). Caffeine: How much is too much? Retrieved February 1, 2009, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/caffeine/NU00600.
Mayo Clinic Staff. (October 17, 2007). Expert Answers section: Caffeine and depression: Is there a link? Retrieved February 1, 2009, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/caffeine-and-depression/AN01700.
McEwen, B., & Lasley, E. N. (2002). The End of Stress as We Know It. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press, p. 139.
McEwen, B., & Lasley, E. N. (2002). The End of Stress as We Know It. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press, pp. 144-145.
Sánchez-Moreno, C., Cano, M. P., de Ancos, B., Plaza, L., Olmedilla, B., Granado, F., & Martín. A. (2004). Consumption of high-pressurized vegetable soup increases plasma vitamin C and decreases oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in healthy humans. Journal of Nutrition, 134, 3021-3025.
UCSF News Office press release. (March 2002). Cholesterol bad for brain too, UCSF study says. Retrieved from http://pub.ucsf.edu/newsservices/releases/200307018/.
U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventative Medicine. (September 2000). The Nutrition and Stress Connection. Retrieved from http://www.hooah4health.com/toolbox/stress/Sec01B_nutrition.pdf.
Take Care of Your Spirit
Arias, A. J., Steinberg, K., Banga, A., & Trestman, R. L. (2006). Systematic review of the efficacy of meditation techniques as treatments for medical illness. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 12(8), 817-832.
Comstock, G. W., & Partridge, K. B.. (1972). Church attendance and health. Journal of Chronic Disease, 25, 665-672.
Contrada, R. J., Goyal, T. M., Cather, C., Rafalson, L., Idler, E. L., & Krause, T. J. (2004). Psychosocial factors in outcomes of heart surgery: The impact of religious involvement and depressive symptoms. Health Psychology, 23(3), 227-238.
Davidson, R. J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J., Rosenkranz, M., Muller, D., Santorelli, S. F., Urbanowski, F., Harrington, A., Bonus, K., & Sheridan, J. F. (2003). Alterations in Brain and Immune Function Produced by Mindfulness Meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65(4), 564-570.
Hummer, R. A., Rogers, R. G., Nam, C. B., & Ellison, C. G. (1999). Religious involvement and U.S. adult mortality. Demography, 36(2), 273-285.
Kabat-Zinn, J., Massion, A. O., Kristeller, J., Peterson, L. G., Fletcher, K. E., Pbert, L., Lenderking, W. R., & Santorelli, S.F. (1992). Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149(7), 936-943.
Koenig, H. G., Hays, J. C., George, L. K., Blazer, D. G., Larson, D. B., & Landerman, L. R. (1997). Modeling the cross-sectional relationships between religion, physical health, social support, and depressive symptoms. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 5(2), 131-144.
Lee, B. Y., & Newberg, A. B. (2005). Religion and health: A review and critical analysis. Zygon, 40(2), 443-468.
Moreira-Almeida, A., Neto, F. L., & Koenig, H. G. (2006). Religiousness and mental health: A review. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 28(3), 242-250.
Rapp, S. R., Rejeski, W. J., & Miller, M. E. (2000). Physical function among older adults with knee pain: The role of pain coping skills. Arthritis Care & Research, 13(5), 270-279.
Deal Better With Hard Times
Billings, A. G., & Moos, R. H. Coping, stress, and social resources among adults with unipolar depression. (1984). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(4), 877-91.
Iyengar, S. S., Wells, R. E., & Schwartz, B. (2006). Doing better but feeling Worse: Looking for the "best" job undermines satisfaction. Psychological Science, 17(2), 143-150.
Pennebaker, J. W. (1997). Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process. Psychological Science, 8, 162-166.
Watkins, P. C., Grimm, D. L. & Kolts, R. (2004). Counting your blessings: Positive memories among grateful persons. Current Psychology, 23(1), 52-67.
Get Professional Help If You Need It
American Psychiatric Association, (2005). Let’s Talk Facts about Depression. Retrieved from www.healthyminds.org/multimedia/depression.pdf.
American Psychiatric Association, (2005). Let’s Talk Facts about Panic Disorder. Retrieved from www.healthyminds.org/multimedia/anxietydisorders.pdf.
Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W.T., Demler, O., & Walters, E. E. (2005) Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 617-27.
National Institutes of Health. Men and depression fact sheet. (2003). (NIH Publication No. 03-5297.) Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/men-and-depression-fact-sheet/index.shtml.